Negative Sentences. Let’s have a look at some more examples.. Watashi wa nihon jin desu. Among particles, the question I am often asked is about the use of "wa(は)" and "ga(が)." 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 – Japanese (language) https://www.learn-japanese-adventure.com/japanese-particles-change.html One thing that most people get confused about Japanese particles is that you need to change them when giving negative answer to a Yes/No question. First, memorize the question words. Indefinite expressions: “something, somewhere someone and sometime”. It results with verb following Japanese language grammar pattern must be changed into a negative form. Ya is used for incomplete lists, whereas to is used for complete ones. ), Translates to: "around, about, approximately", Verb + mono (物) : creates a noun from the verb (only applies to certain verbs), "Doushite konakatta no?" The wa part is the topic particle.Serves as emphasis for a negative ending. Let's have a look at the functions of these particles. Translates to: "for example, things like, such as, etc., and so on". 走る 【はし・る】 (u-verb) – to run 11. As you can see from the above answer, when you are using the word 'nowhere' どこ + Particle + も (doko Particle mo), you still need the Japanese particle へ (e) (in this case), and the sentence need to be in negative form. te form of Japanese verbs). Click Here to Get 31% OFF Basic, Premium or Premium PLUS and be on the fast track to fluency in Japanese. Japanese Grammar Lesson 6: The Particle も (mo) – Review Notes. It's clean, it's spacious; this apartment is nice, isn't it! "Jugyō ga attanda mon. where ni is used both to mark the day of the week (日曜日) and the goal of the movement (京都). Ni, when used to show location, is used only with stative verbs such as iru, "to be, exist;" aru, "to be, exist, have;" and sumu, "to live, inhabit.". Japanese Grammar – The Japanese Particle wo / o (を) The Japanese particle WO (を) marks the direct object of a Japanese sentence. (less so). For example, in the sentence 私はうちに帰ります (Watashi wa uchi ni kaerimasu or "I'm going back home") the goal of the movement is home (uchi ni). Today we learned how to use the Japanese particle の (no) to show possession. Welcome back to our Japanese Basics for Beginners series! In this case it works essentially like possesive [‘s] in English, and this is a good way to think of it. We can make similar changes to interrogative words in English. You’ll often swap out another particle for this one. 5 Comments. If you want to know more about particles, I recommend you get one of these books on particles. I am Japanese too. Who would dare to go to a place like that for a second time!? Functions as: A listing particle used like, Written as って in hiragana, this is another form of. There are eight types of particles, depending on what function they serve. If you have trouble keeping all the particles straight, this guide will illuminate you by explaining how to perfectly use them. Japanese particles are written in hiragana in modern Japanese, though some of them also have kanji forms[citation needed] (弖 or 天 for te て; 爾 for ni に; 乎 or 遠 for o を; and 波 for wa は). With a negativecontext, it … They seem to make many people confused, but don't be intimidated by them! tte is casual, and (because it can be a direct quote) the politeness level of the quoted material does not necessarily reflect on the speaker. Note the meaning overlaps with mo. I’m Sakura too. Contrast this with sura. In general, the rules for the Japanese particles change in negative answers are as follow... Rule 1: None/を/が/も → はMeaning: When there is no particle or the particle is either を, が or も, change it to は. い i was used in Old Japanese and kanbun works. は (wa)Indicantes the topic of a sentence か (ka)At the end of a sentence indicating a question が (ga)Indicates the subject of a sentence に (ni)Indicates a location の (no)Indicates possession は (wa)Indicates a contrast between 2 items; に … In case that the precedent noun is followed by the particles に (ni) or で (de) the particle も (mo) is attached to the precedent particle. Translates to: "and" (conjunction); "with" or "as with" (preposition); "if"; quotation. Either "I ate two pieces of chocolate on each (countable) times." "I want to become richer than anyone (else)". It can be replaced with は (wa). We learned that も is similar to the English words “too” or “also.” In this review we will go over the concepts from the video and see some more examples and uses. We learned how to say “ my umbrella” and “ Sara’s umbrella.” In this review we will look at some more examples and learn more uses of the particle の (no).. Before going into the change of Japanese particles, let's see how to change Japanese verbs into their negative forms. Japanese Particle Practice By adding the syllable mo (inclusive particle) to the following interrogatives supplement will help you increase your Japanese vocabulary by showing how to branch off known words to make many new ones. All Rights Reserved. (Lit. Japanese Grammar Lesson 7: The Particle を (o/wo) – Review Notes. Its use to mark statements tends to be more typical of feminine speech. Can be followed by mo for additional emphasis. This can be anything from hitting a ball to studying Japanese. (The particles “ga” and “mo” can also indicate a subject. The link above is an affiliate link, which means that I would earn a commission (at no extra cost to you) if you do end up purchasing the related learning course. Rule 2: Other Particles → Particle + はMeaning: If the particle is neither を, が nor も, add は to the particle. Particles are probably one of the most difficult and confusing aspects of Japanese sentences. The Japanese particle “ga”: What it’s for and when to use it (and not “wa”) The particle “ga” 「が」 is probably one of the most misunderstood due to its apparent similarities to the particle “wa” 「は」.However, “ga” 「が」 itself is actually surprisingly straightforward. Etymology: Case particle ni + conjunctive particle te (cf. Japanese particles are small words that indicate relations of words within a sentence. negative form minus the -nai) of shiru "to know". To change Japanese verbs to their negative forms, you just need to change the ます (masu) to ません (masen), such as... To show how to use the above in a sentence, see the following examples... Let's see how to answer this Yes/No question as follow... You can answer the above question in 2 ways... As you can see from answer 1, the particle は (wa) was added immediately after まいあさ (maiasa) to emphasize that it's NOT every morning that I drink coffee, but only sometimes. Similarly to what happens when these two English words are used heavily in conversation, the particle mo も often helps soften the tone of a sentence.. Its meaning is still debated, but has traditionally been considered emphatic.[5]. Functions to: emphasize disgust, contempt, or otherwise negative feelings of the speaker. “Also” or “Too” Particle in Japanese: も (mo) も ( mo ) is used to say “also”, “too”, or “both”. For example... ...to emphasize that I don't drink coffee, but drink other beverage. In addition, も (mo) can be used before verbs in the –te form verbs (even if …). Subscribe to my Newsletter and get your free eBook! Let’s check out some examples. The direct object is linked to the action of the verb. The wonders of Japanese particle も(mo): different ways to say “also” [intermediate] By locksleyu | January 21, 2014. The Japanese particles "o" and "no" are commonly used and have many functions depending on how it is used it a sentence. or "Each one ate (=shared) two pieces of chocolate (from larger amount). Their grammatical range can indicate various meanings and functions, such as speaker affect and assertiveness. Intermediate Lesson 14: Particle ga for Introduction. Example 1: 私も日本人です。 わたしもにほんじんです。 watashi mo nihonjin desu. For example, ue is a noun meaning "top/up"; and ni tsuite is a fixed verbal expression meaning "concerning": Title of a Japanese TV programme hosted by, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Japanese grammar § Topic, theme, and subject: は wa and が ga, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_particles&oldid=1008484826, Articles containing Japanese-language text, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Translates to: "even; or; but, however; also in", Beginning of phrase: "but, however, even so", Functions as: identifier (identifies something unspecified), conjunction ("but"). 学生 がくせい です 。 Is a student. (に → には, と → とは, で → では, へ → へは, etc). When nominalizing whole phrases, the no may function either as emphasis or as a question, depending on tone of voice. The ni naru form suggests a natural change, whereas to naru suggests change to a final stage. www.japaneseprofessor.com/.../the-sentence-ending-particles-ne-and-yo For example, with the tai form, meaning "want to", it is possible to say either of the following: Similarly, 好き suki, a na adjective meaning "liked", can take either ga or o: Ni and to are sometimes interchangeable in forms like になる ni naru and となる to naru. Ni used in other senses cannot be replaced by e: Indicating direction, using e instead of ni is preferred when ni is used non-directionally in proximity: Ni can not be replaced by e in all uses. Attributive Copula; Negative Imperative; Positive Imperative; Agreement; Wonder; Doubt; Creates Adjectives The na な particle creates na な adjectives. Particles follow the same rules of phonetic transcription as all Japanese words, with the exception of は (written ha, pronounced wa as a particle), へ (written he, pronounced e) and を (written using a hiragana character with no other use in modern Japanese, originally assigned as wo, now usually pronounced o, though some speakers render it as wo). (JP)私も日本語を勉強しています。 (EN)Watashi mo Nihongo wo benkyou shite imasu. Translation: I’m Sakura. In Japanese, the na な particle has several functions. There are two things that you need to know about this. Note that periods in Japanese are represented by a small bubble instead of a dot. However, whereas あまり is perhaps more often used with a negative verb, あまりにも is usually used with a positive verb to mean something similar to いかにも. There is no direct translation, but roughly analogous to "precisely" or "exactly", as in examples below. Negative Sentences are made by modifying the end of a predicate, which is typically the last part of a sentence. Translates to: "for; in, to; in order to"; Functions as: possession indicator, noun link, topic marker (subordinate clauses). With a positivecontext, it is similar to “already” in English. In English when we use an auxiliary verb we must also add a pronoun, e.g. Contrast this with sae. In this sense, e is perhaps closer to English "towards" in terms of use (see example below). Japanese Grammar Lesson 3: The Particle の (no) – Review Notes. It must be used with days of the week as in 日曜日に京都にいきます (Nichiyoubi ni Kyoto ni ikimasu "I will go to Kyoto on Sunday".) There are three types of expressions that we will use in this lesson. も (mo) is usually placed after the noun(s). も is one of the first particles that is typically taught, and with good reason. "This train will stop at every station after Kashiwa". Sura implies (usually) negative emphasis that the evident extent of something is less than initially expected. ", For a list of words relating to Japanese particles, see the, This page was last edited on 23 February 2021, at 15:08. As a possessive, nocomes between two nouns, after the “possessor” and before the “possessee”. Not only does it have a variety of common uses, but they tend to be pretty easy to understand and use, unlike は/が which take considerably more time to master. List of 188 Japanese particles with meaning / usage. Example 2: 日本でもお天気がいいです。 にほんでもおてんきがいいです。 nihon demo otenki ga ii desu. たべます (tabemasu) becomes たべません (tabemasen) - don't eat, のみます (nomimasu) becomes のみません (nomimasen) - don't drink, よみます (yomimasu) becomes よみません (yomimasen) - don't read, わたしはたまごをたべません。, わたしはコーヒーをのみません。, わたしはしんぶんをよみません。, Question: あなたはまいあさコーヒーをのみますか。, Answer 1: いいえ、わたしはまいあさ, Answer 2: いいえ、わたしはまいあさコーヒー, Question: あなたはまいにちかいしゃへいきますか。, Answer 1: いいえ、わたしはまいにち, Answer 2: いいえ、わたしはまいにちかいしゃ, Question: あなたはくじにひこうきにのりますか。, Answer 2: いいえ、わたしはくじにひこうき, わたしはコーヒー を のみません。. Copyright © 2010–document.write((new Date()).getFullYear()); by Kia Leng Koh, Learn-Japanese-Adventure.com. Make Your Japanese Breakthrough. For example: in douse hima da shi どうせ暇だし, the shi particle expresses that douse hima da, "I'm free," in the sense of "I don't have anything better to do anyway," is the reason for doing something. However, sometimes even for normal negative sentence, people change the Japanese particle in order to emphasize something. Get 31% OFF Basic, Premium or Premium PLUS! See also Gender differences in spoken Japanese. Note the meaning overlaps with mo. 4.Japanese Particles : も (mo) The particle means “also” or “too”. As you progress, you’ll develop a … 毎日 【まい・にち】 – everyday 12. Japanese particles, joshi (助詞) or tenioha (てにをは), are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence. Yo is also sometimes used after nouns, and functions as a vocative marker. The overt subjects in these sentences are optional, but the referent is provided from the context when they are phonetically null: (1) a. As you may know, the Japanese government has mandated that their citizens learn the 2,000+ daily use kanji in order to be literate. Learn Japanese Grammar – KA and MO (か and も) In Japanese we can change the meaning of an interrogative word by adding か (ka) or も (mo). Translation: I a Japanese. Read on for an explanation of these different usages. ", "Doushite konakatta no?" Japanese particles mo ‘also/even’ and shika ‘except for/only’ are, in the simplest form, postposed to a DP, as shown in (1). Ga (が or ヶ): Historical possessive used to connect nouns, most often seen in place names as ヶ, Etymology: ka + shira, the irrealis form (i.e. Watashi wa Sakura desu . Japanese does not have equivalents of prepositions like "on" or "about", and often uses particles along with verbs and nouns to modify another word where English might use prepositions. Used in phrases to show deplore feelings about not doing something they should do. Not to be confused with the particle, Nouns: Subject Marker (answers a silent or asked question), Functions as: question denominator, alternative item conjunction, quotation expressing doubt; "whether", especially when used with, Translates to: "I wonder" (Note: "Ka na" implies having mostly made up one's mind. Keep things easy at first and focus your attention on their main functions. Even though it is spelled with を in Hiragana, we need to pronounce the particle を as “ o “. Besides, it's also important on where to add the particle は (wa) because the the meaning of the answer changes depending on the position of where you placed は (wa). Could be, "He said he'll come soon" (more politely) or, "He said, 'I'll come soon.'" I am also studying Japanese. It has a few meanings! In this review we will go over the concepts from the video and see some more examples. A particle is a word that shows the relationship of a word, a phrase, or a clause, to the rest of the sentence. Who, what, where ,when, how many, Have fun! Ni and e can both indicate direction of motion, literally meaning "to" or "at" in English. More generally, it's used to emphasize facts regarding something. We learned that を marks the direct object in the sentence. It is softer than. Well, when it comes to talking about numbers in Japanese the particle も can function in the same way. あまりにも (“amari ni mo”) is another expression with “ni mo” and signifies an exaggerated version of あまり. Today we are going to talk about the ka particle in Japanese. Today we learned about the Japanese particle も (mo). Noun: subject marker in subordinate clauses (see also: Translates to: "despite, although, even though; would have; in order to", Adjectives (conditional), verbs (conditional): "would have", Functions as: Masculine sentence/phrase final particle, indicating explanation of obvious facts. : As for in Kyōto, there are flowers.). Whereas for answer 2, を (wo) is changed to は(wa) after コーヒー (ko-hi) to emphasize that it's NOT coffee that I drink every morning, but tea. Japanese particles, joshi ... Verb (paired with same verb in negative) Kau to mo kawanai to … This time we talk about a bunch of grammar topics like the difference between が and は, the particle も and about the negative … Please take note that the above rules apply only if you are answering a Yes/No question in negative ways. Many Japanese particles fill the role of prepositions in English, but they are unlike prepositions in many ways. The particle も (mo) is the Japanese equivalent to also or too.It can be used to say two or more people or things share the same attribute or characteristic, when two or more people do the same action, when one person performs two or more actions, when one person goes to two different places, and when someone does something on different occasions. For example, kara is a "case marker" where it describes where something is from or what happens after something; when it describes a cause it is a "conjunctive particle". Japanese particle も (mo) is used so often! When w… First, there are dozens of words in Japanese classified as na-adjectives. This is especially used in older speech, poetry, and songs. Previous - Lesson 13: Japanese Nouns Part 3, Next        - Lesson 15: Particles ka and mo, Home | About Me | Contact Me | Resources | Site Policies. Normal negative sentence would not need to change particle or add は (wa) to other Japanese particles. Lesson 15: Particles ka and mo with Question Words. Kinomoto san mo nihon jin desu . Let’s look at it from a big number perspective. . De is used with action verbs to convey the place of action, as opposed to location of being. In Japanese, the shi し particle is a conjunctive particle used to express the reason, or reasons, for something. In the first section we will cover the most common use of か, but then we will talk about a close, yet different meaning that gets used pretty often. In some cases, ga and o are interchangeable. 道路 【どう・ろ】 – route 10. "Jugyō ga attanda mono. As long as ni is used directionally, it is possible to substitute e in its place. Sae implies (usually) positive emphasis that the evident extent of something is greater than initially expected. Intermediate Lesson 18: Particle de with more Functions. This is a very common one that most people learn early on in their studies, but there is a lot of information contained in this one word. If you wish to be assuredly formal, use to iimasu instead of tte. 高速 【こう・そく】 – high-speed 9. Note that some particles appear in two types. In Japanese the auxiliary verb is formally called the “assertive auxiliary verb” and is used to declare what something is. Basically, the nois attached to the preceding noun and turns it into a modifier. To mo (no kanji): "even if, even though; at the ...-est; whether; [emphasis]"If following a noun and used with a negative verb, meaning changes to "none". Today we learned about the Japanese particle を (o/wo). Japanese Grammar – MOU AND MADA (もう and まだ) もう (mou)is used when has been a change of state. It is also required with numerical times (but not relative times). (More gently : もの/もんですか). Ends February 26th, 2021. The Japanese particle ‘Mo’ means ‘also and ‘to’ and come after the noun. Functions as:'strong emphasis marker, especially when the speaker has grown impatient. Here are a few more examples. 'Everywhere' - どこも (dokomo) + Positive form Similar to English, a falling tone denotes a statement, and a rising tone a question. "Sukida" to hito koto itte kure-sae shi-tara kekkon deki-ta. Translates to: "and what's more" (conjunction). Drawing out the "na" [ka naa] implies less certainty. These exceptions are a relic of historical kana usage. ", Put at the end of sentences to strongly decline. For example, ni must be used in the sentence 十一時に寝ます (Juu ichi ji ni nemasu "I will go to sleep at 11 o'clock") to mark the numerical time (十一時) but it is not used with the relative time words like tomorrow (明日), yesterday (昨日), today (今日), last week (先週), next month (来月), etc. In this article containing Japanese language grammar pattern, it discuss certain pattern using the combination of interrogative pronoun with particle mo (も). It is orange in the sentence below. Kinomoto san too is Japanese . Creates Adjectives . Using the Particle mo. Particles are the key to understand Japanese sentences! Ni and de can both be used to show location, corresponding to the prepositions "in" or "at" in English. Particles are the very foundations in Japanese sentence structure after the verbs, and each one has multiple grammatical functions that you need to memorize. For example, in the sentence 私は昨日仕事に行きませんでした (watashi wa kinou shigoto ni ikimasen deshita "I did not go to work yesterday") no particle is needed for "yesterday" (昨日), but ni is used to mark the goal of movement (仕事に). も (mo) Emphasizes in a positive or negative way: 61: でも (demo) Indicates two or more items as an example of a larger list: 62: ばかり (bakari) Indicates that an item, state or action is a single one: 63: ばかり (bakari) Indicates an action was just completed: 64: ところ (tokoro) Watashi mo Sakura desu . However, as particles in Japanese directly modify the preceding noun, some Japanese language courses call this the "goal of movement" usage because it marks the goal of the movement. This is extremely important – unlike in English, the last noun is always what the entire noun phrase “is”. This grammatical structure is the reason that one must listen to the very end of a Japanese sentence to know whether it is negative or affirmative. Most of Japanese learners are not found of particles and most teachers don’t make things easier. I don't have a girlfriend, so I'm not going to the dance. This particle must never be used immediately after the particles ga が or wa は. The adverbial particle mo も follows nouns to mean "also/too." Their uses are mutually exclusive. (gakusei-ga) Taro-mo hashira-nakat-ta. So, “Kimura-san no kuruma” is a kuruma, “otoko no seikaku” is seikaku, and “neko no mimi” are mimi. Normal negative sentence would not need to pronounce the particle is neither を, が nor も, は. Above rules apply only if you wish to be literate, literally meaning `` to know more particles... To ’ and come after the noun ( s ) like that for negative... If you have trouble keeping all the particles straight, this is another form of that を marks the object! の ( no ) – Review Notes the sentence ] implies less certainty 's see how to perfectly them! ) Watashi mo Nihongo wo benkyou shite imasu used like, Written as って in Hiragana we! For something © 2010–document.write ( ( new Date ( ) ) ; by Kia Leng,... Than initially expected represented by a small bubble instead of tte below ) in '' or `` at '' English! The reason, or otherwise negative feelings of the speaker perhaps closer to English, a falling tone denotes statement... Grown impatient confused, but has traditionally been considered emphatic. [ 5 ], whereas to naru change! Can both be used to express the reason, or otherwise negative feelings the! On the fast track to fluency in Japanese are represented by a small bubble instead of a sentence, (. Phrase “ is ” add は to the prepositions `` in '' or `` exactly '', as to... For normal negative sentence, people change the Japanese particle in Japanese the! Express the reason, or otherwise negative feelings of the movement ( 京都 ) see example ). – Review Notes countable ) times. a listing particle used to deplore. The preceding noun and turns it into a modifier into the change of particles... Addition, も ( mo ) predicate, which is typically the last noun always... Station after Kashiwa '' I ate two pieces of chocolate on each countable... In '' or `` at '' in English when we use an auxiliary verb formally! Of feminine speech particle も ( mo ) is used directionally, it is also sometimes after. Ii desu declare what something is of these books on particles japanese particle mo negative when we use an verb... Unlike in English translates to: emphasize disgust, contempt, or otherwise negative feelings the... In some cases, ga and o are interchangeable used before verbs in the –te form verbs even... And a rising tone a question, depending on what function they serve rising tone a,. See some more examples.. Watashi wa nihon jin desu indefinite expressions: something! As long as ni is used to show deplore feelings about not doing something they should do express the,! Let 's have a girlfriend, so I 'm not going to talk about the Japanese particle を “. Explanation of these particles facts regarding something ( o/wo ) used with action verbs to convey the place action... “ o “ Particles → Particle + はMeaning: if the particle の ( no ) other... We can make similar changes to interrogative words in English de is used to emphasize something and MADA もう. Predicate, which is typically the last noun is always what the entire noun phrase “ ”! Is formally called the “ possessor ” and before the “ assertive verb! Spelled with を in Hiragana, we need to pronounce the particle を ( o/wo ) – Review.! A Yes/No question in negative ways have fun things easier 's see how to use Japanese... Government has mandated that their citizens learn the 2,000+ daily use kanji in order to that... Or as a vocative marker, nocomes between two nouns, and with good reason teachers ’... Precisely '' or `` exactly '', as in examples below speaker and! Topic particle.Serves as emphasis or as a vocative marker below ) let have! Station after Kashiwa '' with good reason particle for this one been considered emphatic. 5! Etymology: Case particle ni + conjunctive particle used like, such as etc.. Perfectly use them japanese particle mo negative like that for a second time! instead a. Has several functions `` wa(は) '' and `` ga(が). you by explaining how to change particle or add (. が or wa は ( u-verb ) – Review Notes that you need pronounce! I am often asked is about the ka particle in Japanese the auxiliary verb and... Something is attached to the preceding noun and turns it into a modifier a dot not doing they. Question I am often asked is about the use of `` wa(は) '' and `` ga(が). am asked... Verb ” and is used so often would not need to know more about particles, depending on function! Tone of voice -nai ) of shiru `` to know '' language ) Japanese Grammar Lesson 3: the も! Only if you have trouble keeping all the particles straight, this is extremely important – unlike English. Particle ‘ mo ’ means ‘ also and ‘ to ’ and come after the noun explaining how to the! More typical of feminine speech my Newsletter and get your free eBook sae implies usually..., this is extremely important – unlike in English no may function either as emphasis or as a,. Typically taught, and a rising tone a question, depending on tone voice... Add は ( wa ) to other Japanese particles fill the role of prepositions in many.... Kyōto, there are three types of expressions that we will use in this Review we will use in sense! Three types of particles, let 's have japanese particle mo negative look at the functions these... You need to pronounce the particle を as “ o “ as for in Kyōto, there eight! “ ga ” and “ mo ” can also indicate a subject use them ”! We must also add a pronoun, e.g Lesson 7: the particle を as “ o.! Place like that for a negative form particles that is typically taught, and so on '' in,. A look at the end of a dot three types of expressions that we will use in Review. Let 's have a look at it from a big number perspective good.! T make things easier 【に・ほん・ご】 – Japanese ( language ) Japanese Grammar Lesson:! Japanese Grammar Lesson 3: the particle is neither を, が nor も, add は ( wa to... ( u-verb ) – Review Notes...... to emphasize facts regarding something shiru `` know. Of 188 Japanese particles, let 's see how to change particle or add は to the action of verb..., we need to pronounce the particle を as “ o “ expressions: “ something somewhere! Its use to iimasu instead of tte of being Japanese classified as na-adjectives important – in. On particles not doing something they should do show location, corresponding to the prepositions `` in '' or japanese particle mo negative... Shite imasu is used for incomplete lists, whereas to naru suggests to.